Police officers are routinely exposed to potentially traumatic incidents yet the majority do not develop post-traumatic stress disorder PTSD. Social support has been identified as one factor that may maintain wellbeing in this population, although what constitutes supportive or unsupportive interactions is unclear. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 19 police officers. Transcripts were analysed using Braun and Clarke's thematic analysis approach.
Participants described a range of supportive interactions with colleagues, friends, and family, as well as social constraints that hindered interactions. Ambivalence about talking about the impact of distressing events was striking throughout the accounts.
The context and source of available support, as well as beliefs about talking, influenced their interactions.
Humour was a central feature of interactions with colleagues; more emotional talk occurred with partners and close family, albeit with officers limiting details in order to protect others. The findings provide tentative insights into the processes of social support that may contribute to the resilience of police officers following traumatic incidents. Further research is needed to examine whether the experiences of supportive and unsupportive interactions differ for those with and without PTSD.
Emergency service work, undertaken by police officers, fire fighters, and ambulance paramedics, carries an inherent risk of exposure to situations that many would find traumatic. Research with this population is important for understanding the factors conferring risk or resilience to traumatic incidents, with implications for both practical support programs and theoretical accounts of PTSD in the clinical field.
However, less is known about the mechanisms underlying this relationship. Factors proposed to influence the relationship between social support and PTSD in the emergency service population include attitudes towards emotional expression Hoyt et al. The social—cognitive processing model Lepore, explicitly addresses the interplay between individual factors and interpersonal processes; it proposes that an individual's social environment can promote or deter willingness to talk about a traumatic event, in turn influencing the level of cognitive processing and adaptive adjustment.
Unsupportive, unreceptive, and critical responses from others e. To date, with few exceptions e. In reviewing the literature on social support and trauma, Guay et al. The present study used a qualitative approach to explore the nature of social support interactions from the perspective of police officers who had experienced distressing incidents but had not developed PTSD; the aim was to understand the types of support processes that might promote resilience.
It addressed the following questions, informed in part by Lepore's social—cognitive processing model of adjustment to trauma:.
Do interactions differ on the basis of the context and source of support i. Police officers in two urban areas of the UK London and Birmingham were recruited using a snowballing approach Patton, A National Health Service ethics committee granted ethical approval; all individuals gave informed consent to take part. Nineteen police officers 13 men, six women took part in the study; their mean age was 36 range: 25— All but four were married or living with a partner.Emergency and disaster planning involves a coordinated, co-operative process of preparing to match urgent needs with available resources.
The phases are research, writing, dissemination, testing, and updating. Hence, an emergency plan needs to be a living document that is periodically adapted to changing circumstances and that provides a guide to the protocols, procedures, and division of responsibilities in emergency response. Emergency planning is an exploratory process that provides generic procedures for managing unforeseen impacts and should use carefully constructed scenarios to anticipate the needs that will be generated by foreseeable hazards when they strike.
Plans need to be developed for specific sectors, such as education, health, industry, and commerce. They also need to exist in a nested hierarchy that extends from the local emergency response the most fundamental levelthrough the regional tiers of government, to the national and international levels. Failure to plan can be construed as negligence because it would involve failing to anticipate needs that cannot be responded to adequately by improvisation during an emergency.
Plans are needed, not only for responding to the impacts of disaster, but also to maintain business continuity while managing the crisis, and to guide recovery and reconstruction effectively.
New Connecticut Law Provides PTSD Workers’ Comp Coverage for First Responders
Dealing with disaster is a social process that requires public support for planning initiatives and participation by a wide variety of responders, technical experts and citizens. It needs to be sustainable in the light of challenges posed by non-renewable resource utilization, climate change, population growth, and imbalances of wealth. Although, at its most basic level, emergency planning is little more than codified common sense, the increasing complexity of modern disasters has required substantial professionalization of the field.
This is especially true in light of the increasing role in emergency response of information and communications technology. Disaster planners and coordinators are resource managers, and in the future, they will need to cope with complex and sophisticated transfers of human and material resources. In a globalizing world that is subject to accelerating physical, social, and economic change, the challenge of managing emergencies well depends on effective planning and foresight, and the ability to connect disparate elements of the emergency response into coherent strategies.
Emergency planning can be defined as the process of preparing systematically for future contingencies, including major incidents and disasters. The plan is usually a document, shared between participants and stakeholders that specifies tasks and responsibilities adopted in the multi-agency response to the emergency. It is a blueprint for managing events and, as such, should be responsive to management needs.
It should specify the lineaments of action, collaboration, command, and communication during a civil contingency such as a disaster or major event; in other words, it is the framework for emergency response.
The maintenance of public safety, limitation of damage, protection of the vulnerable, and efficient use of life-saving resources are some of the goals of the plan. Although the end product is a document, emergency planning is more a process than an outcome, especially as the plan itself will need to be updated over time as circumstances change. As we know it today, emergency planning for disasters derives from civil defense, a form of social organization designed to protect civilians against armed aggression.
The latter is a relatively new concept that in its modern form antedates the Second World War by only a very brief period. Although there had been rudimentary forms of organization for the protection of non-combatants in previous conflicts—for example, the American Civil War of the s—the attack on Guernica, in the Basque country of Spain, on April 26,by German aircraft was the first concerted aerial bombardment it killed 1, civilians and the first occasion on which this had to be countered by properly organized measures of protection.
It was a curtain raiser to the bombardments of the early s, in which civil defense grew enormously, although largely without the benefits of fully codified plans. During this period, civil defense operatives were responsible for search and rescue, safeguarding and accommodating the survivors of bombing raids, ensuring public safety and interdicting areas that had become unsafe. The rather temporary apogee reached by civil defense during the Second World War was subsequently followed by reorganization in order to face the demands of the Cold War, in which civilian life was overshadowed by the threat of a thermo-nuclear exchange between the great powers.
During this period, plans were usually kept secret and were predicated on the assumption—highly debatable—that citizens could be protected and given shelter against nuclear blasts and radioactive fallout. In its purest form, civil defense is a service provided by the central state and directed at the national level i.
Civil protection is a decentralized service i. Emergency planning is a relatively young field that began to develop systematically in the s, coincidentally with the rise of civil protection. Initially, it did so largely in response to technological hazards such as toxic spills and industrial explosions. Later, there was an increasing emphasis on natural disasters, such as floods, storms and earthquakes.Police officers and first responders are subject to major risks and hazards on a daily basis.
Traffic accidents, shootings, assault, falls, and job-related illnesses are all a reality for many officers who are charged with the duty to keep the public safe. They might also be eligible for benefits via several other federal, state and local programs.
Death benefits are also available for survivors when first responders sustain fatal injuries. There are other sources of benefits that injured officers or their family members will want to look into should a major injury or death occur. If the responders sustain a work injury, they will usually qualify to file a claim under the Pennsylvania Heart and Lung Act.
This act provides that police officers and first responders are entitled to full, tax-free wage replacement for temporary disability. Families of first responders who were fatally wounded on duty have access to various additional benefits as well.
To learn more about what types of benefits you have available, speak to a work injury attorney in your area who specifically handles claims for police officers and other first responders.
It goes without saying that officers and first responders who put their lives on the line each day deserve the same benefits as everyone else should they sustain an injury. Some of the common reasons claims get denied include the following. We will act as your legal adviser and advocate and help you obtain the maximum amount of benefits possible. The same holds true if you recently lost your loved one to a work incident. Call us today at or fill out our online contact form and schedule a free consultation.
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From sign-up to payment, our officers are always a priority in our organization. We pay our officers weekly by direct deposit, even before we get paid by the client.
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Apartment buildings will include architectural features and social programming to build community. Also, homes will contain immersion rooms: in which all four walls, ceiling, and floor will be LCD screens. This combined with 3D holography will allow for remarkably immersive entertainment, education, and training. We'll see mass-customized, 3D-printed clothes. At websites from Wal-Mart. Your custom clothes will be in your hands in minutes, no shipping. Marriage will continue to decline. As women gain more economic power, fewer women will feel the need to marry, especially to marry men.
And as divorce laws in most states tend to be tough on men, and women's empowerment efforts are often creating antipathy toward men, fewer men will want to marry women.
Whites will soon be the minority, and Immigration and birth rate trends will accelerate that. This will be the era of color.
Asian countries are becoming ever more formidable. For example, no longer content to be just experts in manufacturing products designed elsewhere, Asian universities are now focusing on creating innovators. Our world is ever more tech-centric and countries like China, India, and Japan have long prioritized STEM professions.
The terms vary: machine learning, active artificial intelligence, deep learning, but the concept is the same: The next generation of software and robots will learn from their mistakes, getting ever smarter.
On the downside, self-teaching computers will accelerate the elimination of not only routine jobs but those requiring some judgment. But en toto, yes, the robots are coming but not so fast. The decline of campus-based higher education.
A degree used to be a virtual guarantor of improved employment. Half of college graduates under 25 are unemployed or doing jobs they could have done with just a high school diploma. And the comprehensive study, Academically Adrift, found remarkably little freshman-to-senior growth in those core areas that college is supposed to improve: critical thinking, analytical reasoning, and writing.
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The trend toward learning outside the halls of academe will continue. More spirit, less religion. The Pew Center reports that the fastest growing religion is no religion.
But people will continue to want a source of inspiration and comfort beyond the quotidian.