This is a collection of websites, online video courses and free eBooks. And for this purpose, I have collected a bunch of free Linux resources that you could use for learning Linux. These free resources include eBooks, video courses, websites etc.
And these are divided into sub-categories so that you can easily find what you are looking for when you seek to learn Linux. If you are looking to build a career as a Linux SysAdmin, I recommend getting professional certification from The Linux Foundationthe organization that employs Linux creator Linus Torvalds. You can also check some inexpensive Linux courses on Udemy.
Again, there is no best way to learn Linux. It totally up to you how you go about learning Linux, by online web portals, downloaded eBooks, video courses or something else. Disclaimer : All the books listed here are legal to download. The sources mentioned here are the official sources, as per my knowledge. However, if you find it otherwise, please let me know so that I can take appropriate action.
So perhaps you have just heard of Linux from your friends or from a discussion online. If you have no idea about what is Linux and you want to get started with it, I suggest you to go ahead with the free video course provided by the Linux Foundation on edX.
And yes, it is endorsed by Linus Torvaldsthe father of Linux himself. Not official and perhaps not very popular. The website is designed beautifully and is well organized based on the topics. It also has interactive quizzes that you can take after reading a section or chapter.
My advice, bookmark this website:. This is a free to download eBook for Linux beginners. The eBook starts with explaining what is Linux and then go on to provide more practical usage of Linux as a desktop. You can read those as an absolute beginner or you can read those for deeper understanding as an intermediate Linux user. You can also use them for reference even if you are at expert level. Introduction to Linux is a free eBook from The Linux Documentation Project and it is one of the most popular free Linux books out there.
This free eBook by Paul Cobbaut teaches you about Linux history, installation and focuses on the basic Linux commands you should know.
As the name suggests, this is for advanced users who are or want to develop software for Linux. If you think you know enough about Linux and you are a pro, then why not create your own Linux distribution? Linux From Scratch LFS is a project that provides you with step-by-step instructions for building your own custom Linux system, entirely from source code. The real power of Linux lies in the command line and if you want to conquer Linux, you must learn Linux command line and Shell scripting.
It covers things from beginners to advanced level. Download it and keep it with you always. This eBook from The Linux Documentation Project is a good place to begin with Linux command line and get acquainted with Shell scripting.Act now. This tutorial gives you a brief introduction to some of the major features of the bash shell, and covers the following topics:. The bash shell is one of several shells available for Linux. Bash is substantially compatible with sh, but it provides many improvements in both function and programming capability.
Unless otherwise noted, the examples in this tutorial use Fedora 22, with a 4. Your results on other systems may differ. This series of tutorials helps you learn Linux system administration tasks. The roadmap is in progress and reflects the version 4. As tutorials are completed, they will be added to the roadmap. This tutorial helps you prepare for Objective The objective has a weight of 4. To get the most from the tutorials in this series, you should have a basic knowledge of Linux and a working Linux system on which you can practice the commands covered in this tutorial.
Sometimes different versions of a program will format output differently, so your results may not always look exactly like the listings and figures shown here. Before we delve deeper into bash, recall that a shell is a program that accepts and executes commands. It also supports programming constructs, allowing complex commands to be built from smaller parts.
These complex commands, or scriptscan be saved as files to become new commands in their own right. Indeed, many commands on a typical Linux system are scripts. Shells have some builtin commands, such as cdbreakand exec. Other commands are external. Input streams provide input to programs, usually from terminal keystrokes.
Output streams print text characters, usually to the terminal. The terminal was originally an ASCII typewriter or display terminal, but it is now more often a window on a graphical desktop.Full Ethical Hacking Course - Network Penetration Testing for Beginners (2019)
For the rest of this tutorial, we will assume you know how to get a shell prompt. If you are using a Linux system without a graphical desktop, or if you open a terminal window on a graphical desktop, you will be greeted by a prompt, perhaps like one of the three shown in Listing 1. Listing 1. Notice that these three prompts are all from my test system atticf20but for different users.
The first two are bash prompts and both show the logged in user, system name and current working directory. The third is the default prompt on my system for a ksh shell. If you log in as the root user or superuseryour prompt may look like one of those shown in Listing 2. Listing 2. The root user has considerable power, so use it with caution. When you have root privileges, most prompts include a trailing pound sign.
Your actual prompt may look different than the examples in this tutorial. Your prompt may include your user name, hostname, current directory, date, or time that the prompt was printed, and so on. Note: Some systems, such as Debian and Debian-based distributions such as Ubuntu, do not allow root login and require all privileged root commands to be executed using the sudo command.
Introduction to Linux (LFS101)
In this case, your prompt will not change, but you will know that you have to use sudo to execute commands that an ordinary user does not have the power to execute. These tutorials include code examples that are cut and pasted from real Linux systems using the default prompts for those systems.
This convention is consistent with many books on the subject. Some commands have neither options nor parameters, and some have one but not the other. If a line contains a character, then all remaining characters on the line are ignored.About Objective Weights: Each objective is assigned a weighting value.
The weights indicate the relative importance of each objective on the exam. Objectives with higher weights will be covered in the exam with more questions. The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:. This objective includes changing to single user mode, shutdown or rebooting the system.
This objective also includes setting the default SysVinit runlevel or systemd boot target. It also includes awareness of Upstart as an alternative to SysVinit or systemd. Description: Candidates should be able to interact with shells and commands using the command line.
The objective assumes the Bash shell. Tasks include redirecting standard input, standard output and standard error, piping the output of one command to the input of another command, using the output of one command as arguments to another command and sending output to both stdout and a file.
25 Free Books To Learn Linux For Free
This objective includes creating simple regular expressions containing several notational elements as well as understanding the differences between basic and extended regular expressions. It also includes using regular expression tools to perform searches through a filesystem or file content. This objective includes vi navigation, vi modes, inserting, editing, deleting, copying and finding text. It also includes awareness of other common editors and setting the default editor.
This includes the handling of swap partitions. Exam Objectives. Purchase Voucher. System Architecture. Topic System Architecture Differentiate between the various types of mass storage devices. Determine hardware resources for devices. Tools and utilities to list various hardware information e.
Tools and utilities to manipulate USB devices. Conceptual understanding of sysfs, udev and dbus. Key Knowledge Areas: Provide common commands to the boot loader and options to the kernel at boot time. Understanding of SysVinit and systemd. Awareness of Upstart. Check boot events in the log files. Key Knowledge Areas: Set the default runlevel or boot target. Shutdown and reboot from the command line. Properly terminate processes.
Awareness of acpid.Bash Hacks is a downloadable eBook that contains practical examples on various advanced Bash command line and shell scripting features that will make your Linux journey more enjoyable. I promise that it will help you understand everything you need to know to become a master in the Bash command line and shell scripting. This book is for newbies or intermediate users of Bash who would like to become an expert in both Bash command line and shell scripting.
This book is for Developers, Linux sysadmins, DBAs, Network Administrators, and IT Managers who spend a significant amount of their time on Linux platform and would like to take advantage of the powerful Bash to make their life easier.
Just think! At 39 cents per hack this book will change the way you work on Bash command line and help you write a shell script quickly to satisfy any of your requirement. Also, this eBook will serve as a permanent reference for all your Bash needs.
25 Free Books To Learn Linux For Free
All rights reserved Terms of Service. When you are working on a Linux environment, does any of the following sound familiar to you? You are spending significant amount of time doing tasks manually, without knowing how to automate those tasks effectively using scripts.
You are executing set of commands to complete a task, and retyping the same commands manually with different values to complete similar tasks. You are having list of complex Linux commands in a reference file, and copy-pasting those complex commands to achive certain results without knowing what it does.
You are having a good understanding of all Linux commands, but struggling to put them together in a shell script to accomplish a task. What is inside the eBook? This book contains a total of pages with clear instructions and numerous examples. Chapters 1 — 3 explain Bash introduction, command line fundamentals, including command line editing, history, jobs, different types of Bash parameters with several examples Chapters 4 — 6 cover various Bash conditional commands, looping structures, various Bash builtins, and Bash array manipulation.
Clear examples are provided. How can Bash help you? Instead of retyping similar commands again and again, you can use the Bash command line features to manipulate previous commands and execute them quickly and efficiently.
Complete complex tasks in a single line by combining multiple Linux commands and one or more Bash builtins. When there is a possibility that you might perform a task again at some point, write a bash shell script instead of manually performing that task. How much does the eBook cost? Free Bonus Gifts Included!Spare Time Labs 2. Actually this is notes to self so I do not need to look this up from the web every time I need it!
Teletype and Other Arcane Stuff Traditionally Unix based system are based on command line interface used over a terminal connection. Even if it all runs in a single PC. This is very powerfull but for those born into GUI enviroments it can be a bit intimidating and it has some features that are based on ancient computer history. Things that nobody bothers to explain. Incidentally, this is part of University - Computer Usage, worth one credit.
I did. Back in the good old days, when I was in my early teens, computers were used via a terminal called Teletype. It was basically an electric typewriter where you punched keys to enter commands into the computer and the computer hammered literally it's output to roll paper.
What is still significant from this old interaction model is that computer output was and still is static. So if you list the contents of a directoryand then delete a file, the listing stays the same, unless you take another listing. Those were the days, and yet its only a quarter of a centry ago. So the main interaction model in Linux is a terminal session using a 'glass teletype'. You type in commands and watch the outpour of characters on the terminal.
A session begins when you log into a Linux system and ends when you log off. It is usually possible to open multiple sessions by launching the terminal window multiple times. This can be very usufull as it is like working on multiple computers at the same time. Of Files and Directories All large systems, which today means any system, have thousands of files. On this laptop that I'm writing this on I have about So obviously you want to organize them some how so that you can find anything at all.
This is called hierarchical file system. If he had bought something deacent, like OS-9, boy would we all have been saved from a lot of headache.
Unlike Windows, Linux uses no drive letters, such as 'C:' to refer to disks. In Linux everything is a directory. The top most directory is equivalent to the drive letter. File and directory names can contain all kinds of letters but it is best to use names that only use english lowercase letters and digits plus maybe dashes and underlines.
Especially you should avoid names with spaces ' ' in them. They will make your life miserable. Names that begin with period '. Or actually it is the other way round, because tools store info into those files they are hidden. Names are case sensitive in Linux whereas in Windows they are not. This can be very confusing if you are testing something, say a web page, in Windows and it works but does not work when you upload it to the server which is most likely a Linux box.
Each session has current directory assosiated with it.Develop a good working knowledge of Linux using both the graphical interface and command line across the major Linux distribution families. In short, Linux is everywhere. It appears in many different architectures, from mainframes to server to desktop to mobile and on a staggeringly wide variety of hardware.
This course explores the various tools and techniques commonly used by Linux system administrators and end users to achieve their day-to-day work in a Linux environment. It is designed for experienced computer users who have limited or no previous exposure to Linux, whether they are working in an individual or Enterprise environment.
Upon completion of this training you should have a good working knowledge of Linux, from both a graphical and command line perspective, allowing you to easily navigate through any of the major Linux distributions. You will be able to continue your progress as either a user, system administrator or developer using the acquired skill set. Chapter 1. The Linux Foundation Chapter 2.
Linux Philosophy and Concepts Chapter 3. Linux Basics and System Startup Chapter 4. Graphical Interface Chapter 5. System Configuration from the Graphical Interface Chapter 6. Common Applications Chapter 7. Command Line Operations Chapter 8. Finding Linux Documentation Chapter 9.
Processes Chapter File Operations Chapter Text Editors Chapter User Environment Chapter Manipulating Text Chapter Network Operations Chapter More on Bash Shell Scripting Chapter Printing Chapter Local Security Principles Final Exam. All rights reserved. The Linux Foundation has registered trademarks and uses trademarks.
Linux is a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds. Restrictions Apply. Introduction to Linux LFS Develop a good working knowledge of Linux using both the graphical interface and command line across the major Linux distribution families.From Linux For Dummies, 9th Edition.
You may need to get familiar with the Linux commandsbut Linux offers easy ways to find help. Open-source Linux is a popular alternative to Microsoft Windows, and if you choose to use this low-cost or free operating system, you need to know some basic Linux commands to configure, operate, and interact with your system smoothly.
When dealing with the Linux operating system, commands are required as inputs to inform or direct a computer program to perform a specific operation. Understanding the most basic Linux commands will allow you to successfully navigate directories, manipulate files, change permissions, display information such as disk space, and more.
Obtaining basic knowledge of the most common commands will help you easily execute tasks via the command line.
To access or remove disks, just follow these procedures:. You may find yourself needing more help using Linux than you do using more pervasive operating systems, like Windows. Fortunately, Linux provides fairly easy ways to find help, as shown here:. The Fedora Documentation Project is growing its collection of help manuals for Fedora users.
Cheat Sheet. Linux For Dummies Cheat Sheet. Common Linux Commands Open-source Linux is a popular alternative to Microsoft Windows, and if you choose to use this low-cost or free operating system, you need to know some basic Linux commands to configure, operate, and interact with your system smoothly. If the process refuses to stop, use kill -9 pid.
Leave an ssh session by typing exit. Press q to exit. How to Get Help on Linux You may find yourself needing more help using Linux than you do using more pervasive operating systems, like Windows. Fortunately, Linux provides fairly easy ways to find help, as shown here: Type This.
To Find This. Can also be used as apropos [keyword]. Remotely log in to another Linux machine, over the network. Store and extract files from a tarfile. Search a database for commands that involve the keyword.